Monday, 16 July 2012


Goats play an important role in the rural economy at national level. More than 70 percent of the landless agricultural laborers and marginal and small farmers of the rural India rear them.

The socio-economic value of goat rearing as compared to other livestock species has been immense for the poor farmers. The low input, high fecundity, easy marketing and un prejudiced social ear acceptance of their products are few of many advantages of this enterprise that provides assured higher income.

Goats are also among the main meat-producing animals in India, whose meat (chevron) is readily preferred irrespective of caste, creed and religion. They produce a variety of products, mainly meat, milk, skin, wool and manure.

The goats are particularly useful in the semiarid, area arid and mountainous regions, where they can sustain on sparse vegetation and extreme climatic conditions. Further, wherever irrigation facilities are poor, one can generally find large areas of the waste and other common property land; on which the small ruminants of rural resource-poor households can survive. A major part of their fodder requirement is met through such waste and other common property lands. It has been argued that these rural households have often developed highly efficient agricultural and livelihood systems that make the most rational and conservative use of the scarce resources available to them (Barbier, 1989). The rural poor who cannot afford to maintain a cow or a buffalo find goat/ sheep as the -best alternative source of supplementary income and milk. This is one reason why poor rural households maintain a few number of goats.

Unlike a cow or buffalo, a few goats can be maintained easily and can be easily sold in the years led of drought Therefore this sector assumes critical importance in rain-fed areas, high altitudes as well as in wasteland and fragile zones having low agricultural productivity. However the productivity of goats under the prevailing extensive production system is very low. It is mainly because the animals are reared on natural vegetation on degraded common grazing lands, wastelands, stubbles and tree lopping. Even these degraded grazing resources are shrinking continuously. Moreover the improved production technologies/ management practice in the farmers 'flocks are very low. Therefore, rearing of goats under intensive and semi-intensive system using improved production and processing meat, technologies for commercial production will be needed for realizing their full potential Growth and distribution.

Professionals, ex-servicemen and educated youth to take up the goat enterprise on commercial scale, This trend of commercialization is especially prominent in the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, where availability of grazing resources is relatively better.

Even there are number of commercial goat farms doing well, who got knowledge of scientific goat rearing from other institutions. All these commercial farmers are well educated and have better access to technical and market information contrary to the traditional goat farmers who in majorities are illiterate and belong to the poor section of rural population.

This trend of commercialization in goat production deriving entrepreneurs looking for higher productivity and profitability seems desirable. More commercialization would encourage Intensification of goat production hitherto highly extensive system depending only on grazing in degraded common lands. Commercialization might not only help in increasing the productivity of goats by having better access to critical inputs and technical knowledge, but may also relieve some pressure from the grazing lands. Animals in commercial production system would have to depend on alternative sources of fodder like agro-forestry, tree leaves and partial/ complete stall-feeding reducing the dependency on common grazing lands. Moreover, the commercial goat entrepreneurs would also be better placed in meeting the quality standards necessary for exports of goats and their products to large expanding international market particularly West Asia and Southeast Asia.

Therefore along with the extensive production system, the trend of commercialization of goat enterprise needs to be encouraged. Intensification and commercialization of goat enterprise is also important because of shrinking of resources for extensive grazing. Commercialization will help in it increasing the goat productivity to some extent and bridging the demand-supply gap. It seems to be a better option for increasing productivity and production from goats, but it will have its own associated problems and challenges like high incidence of diseases in large flocks, if not managed properly. The losses due to diseases and parasites could be minimized by using recommended preventive goat health calendar and management practices.

Commercial Goat Farming In India 2012

Goats are among the main meat-producing animals in India , whose meat (chevon) is one of the choicest meats and has huge domestic demand. Due to its good economic prospects, goat rearing under intensive and semi-intensive system for commercial production has been gaining momentum for the past couple of years. High demand for goat and its products with potential of good economic returns have been deriving many progressive farmers, businessmen, professionals, ex-servicemen and educated youths to take up the goat enterprise on a commercial scale. pic1The emerging favourable market conditions and easy accessibility to improved goat technologies are also catching the attention of entrepreneurs. A number of commercial goat farms have been established in different regions of the country.
An unemployed agricultural graduate Mr. Deepak Patidar resident of village-Sundrail, District-Dhar, Madhya Pradesh attended a Training Programme on Commercial Goat Farming organized by CIRG, Makhdoom for 10 days in the year 2000. Being inspired and motivated by the scientists of CIRG he started a Goat Farm (Ekta Agronomic and Livestock) in his village in the year 2001. The farm was established with 60 local goats reared under stall-fed intensive system of management. Initially he faced a number of problems like high cost of production, mortality and low price of the produce. Under a project on Commercialization of Goat farming and Marketing of Goats in India , the scientist from CIRG visited his farm and suggested changes like breed (Sirohi), preparing pure breed animals as breeding stock and effective marketing strategy and strengthening linkages with the other farmers. Simultaneously he also received technical guidance from the scientists of CIRG on health management of goats. Accordingly Mr. Patidar introduced changes in his goat farm. Consequently his goat farming project became viable and profitable. Mr. Deepak Patidar remained pic2continuously in touch with the scientists of CIRG through Scientist-Farmer Interactive Meets and Seminars and has been using latest scientific information on goat production for his benefit. The mortality in adults and kids, which was 10 and 40% respectively in the beginning, now has decreased to about 3% to 8 % per annum. Presently he has 180 goats in his farm and prepares pure breed animals mainly of Sirohi breed of goat for selling them as breeding stock to the farmers and entrepreneurs. He also has some goats of Barbari, Jakhrana and Janumapari breed. He sells his goats only on live body weight basis at the rate of Rs. 120 to Rs. 200 per kg of live body weight. At present the annual gross revenue of the goat farm is Rs. 4 to 5 lakhs and total annual expenditure is Rs. 1.5 to 2 lakhs giving an annual net income of Rs. 2 to 3 lakhs.
Mr. Patidar has become a well recognized commercial goat farmer of Indore Region and various related government departments, NGOs and farmers consider him as a progressive goat farmer. He is being invited as a resource person on goat husbandry in different training programmes organized by the Animal Husbandry department and local NGOs. Till date about 1000 farmers and trainees have visited his farm. Now he is developing and strengthening linkages with the small/ traditional goat farmers of the area for taking up breed improvement and organized marketing.